NATO Full Form, Countries List, Members, and Founders

In order to counter Soviet troops in Central and Eastern Europe following World War II, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a military alliance created by the North Atlantic Treaty of April 4, 1949 (often referred to as the Washington Treaty), was founded. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States were among its founding members.

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

NATO initially put Article 5 into effect. Part of the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon outside of Washington, DC, were attacked on September 11, 2001, by exiled Saudi Arabian businessman Osama bin Laden, who murdered approximately 3,000 people.

According to Article 6, the treaty's geographic scope includes "an armed attack on the territory of either party in Europe or North America." New clauses bind allies to improve their democratic institutions, increase their combined military power, be receptive to mutual consultation, and extend an invitation to other European nations to join.

NATO Full Form

  • NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • नाटो – उत्तर अटलांटिक संधि संगठन

Greece and Turkey were among the original signatories in 1952, followed by West Germany in 1955 and Germany as a whole in 1990; Spain in 1982; the Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia in 2004; Albania and Croatia in 2009; Montenegro in 2017; and North Macedonia in 1999; as well as Poland (2020). France left the unified military leadership of NATO in 1966 but continued to be a member; it returned to the military command in 2009.

NATO's Historical Background

Western Europe was militarily and economically weak after World War II in 1945 (the Western Allies having drastically and quickly decreased their forces at the conclusion of the war), and the New Powerful communist parties had arisen in Italy and France.

In contrast, the Soviet Union had forces in every country in Central and Eastern Europe when the war ended, and by 1948, the Communists were firmly in control of both the governments of those nations and all non-state governments thanks to Moscow's support. was. had consumed. Governments. Political activity by communists was repressed. The Iron Curtain, as defined by Winston Churchill, arrived in Central and Eastern Europe.

Additionally, there was a minimal collaboration between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies during the conflict. In order for two German nations to emerge—a democratic one in the west and a communist one in the east—each side of the conflict organized its own portion of occupied Germany.

Alliance of NATO

The North Korean invasion of South Korea in June 1950 (see Korean War) served as an inspiration for the United States to take action to show that it would resist any Soviet military pressure or expansion in Europe. In December 1950, the North Atlantic Council (NATO's governing body) appointed Dwight D. Eisenhower Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), the commander of the Allied troops in Western Europe during World War II. American generals succeeded him in turn as SACEUR.

Ministerial representatives from the member nations make up the North Atlantic Council, which was founded immediately after the treaty went into effect. It meets at least twice a year. At other times, the council, which is presided over by the secretary-general of NATO, is in continuous session with ambassadors. The Secretary-General has always been a European, just as the SACEUR position has always been held by an American.

The military structure of NATO has a full chain of command that might be used in a conflict. Two strategic commands make up the Military Committee, which is made up of delegates from the military chiefs of staff of member states: Allied Command Operations (ACO) and Allied Command Transformation (ACT) (ACT). The Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Castau, Belgium, is home to the ACO, which is run by the SACEUR.

Over the course of the first 20 years of the partnership, ACT, a US company with its headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia, proposes to invest over $3 billion on "infrastructure" for NATO forces, including bases, airfields, pipelines, communications networks, and depots. was developed, financed, and constructed with about. The US is responsible for one-third of the funding. Although the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force, a fleet of radar-bearing aircraft that fly unexpectedly low, is well-known, NATO financing is often not utilized to acquire military equipment, which is given by member nations. The construction of this defense was cooperatively funded.

U.S. role in NATO

The Marshall Plan, which the United States began in 1948, offered substantial economic help to Western and Southern European nations in exchange for their cooperation and commitment to a shared strategy to hasten their recovery. be anchored. Happen. Under the terms of the 1948 Brussels Treaty, the United Kingdom, France, and the Low Countries—Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg—agreed to form the Western European Union, a collective defense organization. However, it was quickly realized that a stronger alliance would be required to deliver the Soviet Union with significant military reprisal.

NATO Countries List, Members, Founders

  • Albania 2009
  • Belgium 1949
  • Bulgaria 2004
  • Canada 1949
  • Croatia 2009
  • Czech Republic 1999
  • Denmark 1949
  • Estonia 2004
  • France 1949
  • Germany 1955
  • Greece 1952
  • Hungary 1999
  • Iceland 1949
  • Italy 1949
  • Latvia 2004
  • Lithuania 2004
  • Luxembourg 1949
  • Montenegro 2017
  • Netherlands 1949
  • North Macedonia 2020
  • Norway 1949
  • Poland 1999
  • Portugal 1949
  • Romania 2004
  • Slovakia 2004
  • Slovenia 2004
  • Spain 1982
  • Türkiye 1952
  • United Kingdom 1949
  • United States 1949

France's role in NATO

In 1958, President Charles de Gaulle attacked NATO for being dominated by the United States and for many of its international personnel and operations infringing on French sovereignty. As a result, France's relations with NATO deteriorated. He said that this "unification" made France vulnerable to "automatic" war at the whim of outsiders. In July 1966, France formally left NATO's military command structure, and NATO soldiers and headquarters had to depart French territory. Nevertheless, de Gaulle said that France would still abide by the North Atlantic Treaty in the event of "unprovoked aggression." France continued to keep and deploy ground forces in West Germany, despite NATO doing so, and to communicate with the unified military staff of NATO when it transferred its headquarters from Paris to Brussels. France also continued to sit on the council. new bilateral agreements with West Germany, as opposed to having control over them. In 2009, France re-entered the NATO military command structure.

Germany's role in NATO

The discussion of West Germany's membership in NATO in the early and middle 1950s was a significant subject. In Western Europe, the idea of a rebuilt Germany was met with general unease and reluctance, but the country's power had long been considered essential to defending the continent against a potential Soviet invasion. As a result, the Paris Agreement of October 1954, which put an end to the Western Allies' occupation of West German territory and established the country's admission to the Brussels Treaty, allowed for West Germany's "secure" involvement in the alliance. In response to West Germany's May 1955 NATO membership, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact alliance in Central and Eastern Europe the following year. Later, the West Germans gave the NATO alliance many divisions and a sizable air force. By the conclusion of the Cold War, West Germany was home to around 900,000 troops, over half of who came from six nations: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Canada, and the Netherlands.

Is Russia a member of NATO?

No, Russia is not a member of NATO. In actuality, the major problem NATO was created to combat is perceived Russian government aggressiveness. Despite this, historically speaking, Russia has at least seemed to cooperate with NATO. In 1991, Russia and NATO founded the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, and in 1994, Russia signed up for the Partnership for a Peace initiative. In order to discuss security concerns and work together on shared initiatives, the Russia-NATO Council was established in 2002. Following Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, NATO halted all relations with Russia, including the NATO-Russia Council. Since 2017, Russia and NATO have met multiple times. According to NATO, repairing ties with Russia depends on Russia upholding its promises and upholding international law.

Is Ukraine a member of NATO?

It hasn't joined yet, but it is working on it. Ukraine signed up for the NATO Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and submitted an application to join the MAP in 2008. Ukraine's journey toward UN membership was slowed down by Viktor Yanukovich's victory in the 2010 presidential election, who wished to keep the nation neutral. However, Ukraine's new administration redoubled and emphasized efforts to join NATO in the wake of two important events in 2014—Russia's annexation of the Crimean peninsula of Ukraine and a national election. A 2017 poll found that 69% of Ukrainians favor joining NATO. In 2018, Ukraine willingly joined NATO. The Ukrainian Parliament decided on February 7, 2019, to amend its constitution to state that it intends to join NATO and the European Union.

NATO: Members of the Future and Partnership for Peace Program

NATO's Partnership for Peace initiative, which aims to foster trust between the alliance and nations in Europe and the former Soviet Union, has twenty countries as participants. Ironically, Russia is a part of the Partnership for Peace initiative, despite the fact that its invasions of Georgia (2008), Crimea (2014), and Ukraine (2022) cast doubt on the nation's commitment to world peace.

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